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David W. Grainger

Phone: 801 587 9263
Office: 3227 SMBB

David W. Grainger

University Distinguished Professor and Chair, Department of Biomedical Engineering
Distinguished Professor of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Adjunct Professor, Department of Orthopedics
Adjunct Professor, Department of Chemistry
• Daniels Fund “Ethics Initiative Leadership in Education Award,” Daniels Foundation, 2018
• 2016 Fulbright Senior Scholar (Univ. Otago, New Zealand), February-June, 2016
• Excellence in Surface Science Award, Surfaces in Biomaterials Foundation, 2013
Alexander von Humboldt Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Mainz, Germany, 1989
Ph.D., Pharmaceutics, University of Utah, 1987
B.A., Engineering modified with Chemistry, Dartmouth College, 1983


Drug delivery and medical device innovation; bioanalytical sensing, diagnostics and microarrays, foreign body response, device infection and bacterial-surface interactions, surface analysis, antibody drugs, novel vaccines

Current Research

• Drug delivery systems and novel formulation strategies
• Polymeric biomaterials
• Antimicrobial medical devices, infection and bacterial colonization
• Nucleic acid and protein microarray diagnostics
• Macrophage interactions with biomaterials and the foreign body response
• Novel live vaccine and protein delivery
• Bioanalytical sensing and device miniaturization
• Surface analysis
• Nanotoxicity

Select Technical Book Chapters:

1. M. Avula, A. Rao, D.W. Grainger, “Biomaterials in Continuous Glucose Sensing In vivo”, in 2nd edition, Comprehensive Biomaterials eds. P. Ducheyne, K. Healy, D.W. Grainger, J. Kirkpatrick, D. Hutmacher, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2017. ISBN 9780081006917
2. J.L. Falconer, D.W. Grainger, “Silver-containing Biomaterials”, in 2nd edition, Comprehensive Biomaterials eds. P. Ducheyne, K. Healy, D.W. Grainger, J. Kirkpatrick, D. Hutmacher, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2017. ISBN 9780081006917
3. F. Liu, D.W. Grainger, “Fluorinated Biomaterials” in 2nd edition, Comprehensive Biomaterials eds. P. Ducheyne, K. Healy, D.W. Grainger, J. Kirkpatrick, D. Hutmacher, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2017. ISBN 9780081006917
4. D.G. Castner, D.W. Grainger, “Surface analytical methods: in situ and UHV techniques” in 2nd edition, Comprehensive Biomaterials eds. P. Ducheyne, K. Healy, D.W. Grainger, J. Kirkpatrick, D. Hutmacher, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2017. ISBN 9780081006917
5. C.F Jones, D.G. Castner, D.W. Grainger, “Surface Adsorbates on Nanomaterials and Their Possible Roles in Host Inflammatory and Toxicological Processing,” Chapter 6 in Handbook of Immunological Properties of Engineered Nanomaterials (Volume 1: Key Considerations for Nanoparticle Characterization Prior to Immunotoxicity Studies), 2nd ed., (M. Dubrovolaskia, S. McNeil, eds.), World Scientific Press, Singapore, ISBN: 978-981-4699-16-7. 2016, pp. 376.
6. A. Rao, M.N. Avula, D.W. Grainger, “Aging and the host response to implanted biomaterials,” Chapter 11 in Host Response to Biomaterials, in S. Badylak, ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam, ISBN: 978-0-12-800196-7; 2015, pp. 269-303.
7. M.N. Avula, D.W. Grainger, “Addressing medical device challenges with drug/device combinations,” Chapter 3, in Drug-Device Combinations for Chronic Diseases, R. Siegel., S.P. Lyu, eds., Wiley, New York, ISBN: 978-1-118-12000-2, 280 pp., 2015.
8. C-Y Lee, L.J. Gamble, G.M. Harbers, P. Gong, D.W. Grainger, D.G. Castner, “Multi-technique characterization of DNA-modified surfaces for biosensing and diagnostic applications” (Chapter 11) in “Surface Analysis and Techniques in Biology”, ed. V. S. Smentkowski, Springer AG, London, (2013), pp. 289-314; DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-01360-2.
9. B. Brooks, A. Brooks. D.W. Grainger, “Antimicrobial Technologies in Preclinical and Clinical Medical Devices”, in ‪Biomaterials Associated Infection‬: ‪Immunological Aspects and Antimicrobial Strategies‬, T. F. Moriarty, S.A.J. Zaat, H. Busscher, eds., Springer Verlag, New York, 2012, Chapter 13, pp. 307-354; ISBN 978-1-4614-1030-0.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

Selected Publications

Diekjürgen D, Grainger DW, Drug transporter expression profiling in a three-dimensional kidney proximal tubule in vitro nephrotoxicity model. Pflugers Arch 2018 Sep;470(9):1311-1323

Falconer JL, Alt JA, Grainger DW, Comparing ex vivo and in vitro translocation of silver nanoparticles and ions through human nasal epithelium. Biomaterials 2018 Jul;171:97-106

Abou-El-Enein M, Grainger DW, Kili S, Registry Contributions to Strengthen Cell and Gene Therapeutic Evidence. Mol Ther 2018 May 2;26(5):1172-1176

Falconer JL, Grainger DW, In vivo comparisons of silver nanoparticle and silver ion transport after intranasal delivery in mice. J Control Release 2018 Jan 10;269:1-9

Diekjürgen D, Grainger DW, Polysaccharide matrices used in 3D in vitro cell culture systems. Biomaterials 2017 Oct;141:96-115

Abou-El-Enein M, Duda GN, Gruskin EA, Grainger DW, Strategies for Derisking Translational Processes for Biomedical Technologies. Trends Biotechnol 2017 Feb;35(2):100-108

Jones Z, Brooks AE, Ferrell Z, Grainger DW, Sinclair KD, A resorbable antibiotic eluting bone void filler for periprosthetic joint infection prevention. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2016 Nov;104(8):1632-1642

Deans TL, Grainger DW, Fussenegger M, Synthetic Biology: Innovative approaches for pharmaceutics and drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2016 Oct 1;105(Pt A):1-2

Aamodt JM, Grainger DW, Extracellular matrix-based biomaterial scaffolds and the host response. Biomaterials 2016 Apr;86:68-82

Avula M, Jones D, Rao AN, McClain D, McGill LD, Grainger DW, Solzbacher F, Local release of masitinib alters in vivo implantable continuous glucose sensor performance. Biosens Bioelectron 2016 Mar 15;77:149-56

Falconer JL, Christie RJ, Pollard EJ, Olsen SC, Grainger DW, Live RB51 vaccine lyophilized hydrogel formulations with increased shelf life for practical ballistic delivery. Int J Pharm 2016 Feb 10;498(1-2):187-94

Winters AA, Bou-Ghannam S, Thorp H, Hawayek JA, Atkinson DL, Bartlett CE, Silva FJ, Hsu EW, Moreno AP, Grainger DA, Patel AN, Evaluation of Multiple Biological Therapies for Ischemic Cardiac Disease. Cell Transplant 2016;25(9):1591-1607

Grainger DW, Bae YH, The 17th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Drug Delivery, June 14-17, 2015, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. Preface. J Control Release 2015 Dec 28;220(Pt B):569-70

Auer JA, Grainger DW, Fracture management in horses: Where have we been and where are we going? Vet J 2015 Oct;206(1):5-14

Hofmann-Amtenbrink M, Grainger DW, Hofmann H, Nanoparticles in medicine: Current challenges facing inorganic nanoparticle toxicity assessments and standardizations. Nanomedicine 2015 Oct;11(7):1689-94

Chamberlain LM, Holt-Casper D, Gonzalez-Juarrero M, Grainger DW, Extended culture of macrophages from different sources and maturation results in a common M2 phenotype. J Biomed Mater Res A 2015 Sep;103(9):2864-74

Grainger DW, Fat Prospects for Healing Cutaneous Wounds: New Activities Under the Sheets. Diabetes 2015 Aug;64(8):2717-9

Gustafson HH, Holt-Casper D, Grainger DW, Ghandehari H, Nanoparticle Uptake: The Phagocyte Problem. Nano Today 2015 Aug;10(4):487-510

Grainger DW, Wound healing: Enzymatically crosslinked scaffolds. Nat Mater 2015 Jul;14(7):662-3

Holt-Casper D, Theisen JM, Moreno AP, Warren M, Silva F, Grainger DW, Bull DA, Patel AN, Novel xeno-free human heart matrix-derived three-dimensional scaffolds. J Transl Med 2015 Jun 18;13:194

Volk HD, Stevens MM, Mooney DJ, Grainger DW, Duda GN, Key elements for nourishing the translational research environment. Sci Transl Med 2015 Apr 8;7(282):282cm2

Brooks BD, Sinclair KD, Grainger DW, Brooks AE, A resorbable antibiotic-eluting polymer composite bone void filler for perioperative infection prevention in a rabbit radial defect model. PLoS One 2015;10(3):e0118696

Duda GN, Grainger DW, Frisk ML, Bruckner-Tuderman L, Carr A, Dirnagl U, Einhäupl KM, Gottschalk S, Gruskin E, Huber C, June CH, Mooney DJ, Rietschel ET, Schütte G, Seeger W, Stevens MM, Urban R, Veldman A, Wess G, Volk HD, Changing the mindset in life sciences toward translation: a consensus. Sci Transl Med 2014 Nov 26;6(264):264cm12

Astashkina AI, Jones CF, Thiagarajan G, Kurtzeborn K, Ghandehari H, Brooks BD, Grainger DW, Nanoparticle toxicity assessment using an in vitro 3-D kidney organoid culture model. Biomaterials 2014 Aug;35(24):6323-31

Brooks BD, Sinclair KD, Davidoff SN, Lawson S, Williams AG, Coats B, Grainger DW, Brooks AE, Molded polymer-coated composite bone void filler improves tobramycin controlled release kinetics. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2014 Jul;102(5):1074-83

Smock KJ, Schmidt RL, Hadlock G, Stoddard G, Grainger DW, Munger MA, Assessment of orally dosed commercial silver nanoparticles on human ex vivo platelet aggregation. Nanotoxicology 2014 May;8(3):328-33

Avula MN, Rao AN, McGill LD, Grainger DW, Solzbacher F, Foreign body response to subcutaneous biomaterial implants in a mast cell-deficient Kit(w-Sh) murine model. Acta Biomater 2014 May;10(5):1856-63


Grainger DW, Cell-based drug testing; this world is not flat. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2014 Apr;69-70:vii-xi

Astashkina A, Grainger DW, Critical analysis of 3-D organoid in vitro cell culture models for high-throughput drug candidate toxicity assessments. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2014 Apr;69-70:1-18

Silva FJ, Holt DJ, Vargas V, Yockman J, Boudina S, Atkinson D, Grainger DW, Revelo MP, Sherman W, Bull DA, Patel AN, Metabolically active human brown adipose tissue derived stem cells. Stem Cells 2014 Feb;32(2):572-81

Wang Y, Liu J, Zhang J, Wang L, Chan J, Wang H, Jin Y, Yu L, Grainger DW, Ying W, A cell-based pharmacokinetics assay for evaluating tubulin-binding drugs. Int J Med Sci 2014;11(5):479-87

Munger MA, Radwanski P, Hadlock GC, Stoddard G, Shaaban A, Falconer J, Grainger DW, Deering-Rice CE, In vivo human time-exposure study of orally dosed commercial silver nanoparticles. Nanomedicine 2014 Jan;10(1):1-9

Degooyer J, Davidoff SN, Brooks BD, Grainger DW, Brooks AE, Polymer-controlled extended combination release of silver and chlorhexidine from a bone void filler. Biomed Sci Instrum 2014;50:47-53

Moriarty TF, Grainger DW, Richards RG, Challenges in linking preclinical anti-microbial research strategies with clinical outcomes for device-associated infections. Eur Cell Mater 2014 Sep 12;28:112-28; discussion 128

Avula MN, Rao AN, McGill LD, Grainger DW, Solzbacher F, Modulation of the foreign body response to implanted sensor models through device-based delivery of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, masitinib. Biomaterials 2013 Dec;34(38):9737-46

Grainger DW, van der Mei HC, Jutte PC, van den Dungen JJ, Schultz MJ, van der Laan BF, Zaat SA, Busscher HJ, Critical factors in the translation of improved antimicrobial strategies for medical implants and devices. Biomaterials 2013 Dec;34(37):9237-43

Brooks AE, Brooks BD, Davidoff SN, Hogrebe PC, Fisher MA, Grainger DW, Polymer-controlled release of tobramycin from bone graft void filler. Drug Deliv Transl Res 2013 Dec;3(6):518-30

Wang Y, Grainger DW, Developing siRNA therapies to address osteoporosis. Ther Deliv 2013 Oct;4(10):1239-46

Grainger DW, Connecting drug delivery reality to smart materials design. Int J Pharm 2013 Sep 15;454(1):521-4

Grainger DW, All charged up about implanted biomaterials. Nat Biotechnol 2013 Jun;31(6):507-9

Davidoff SN, Lawson ST, Grainger DW, Brooks AE, Scanning electron image analysis to monitor of implant degradation and host healing following implantation of a drug-eluting bone graft void filler - biomed 2013. Biomed Sci Instrum 2013;49:165-71

Richards RG, Moriarty TF, Miclau T, McClellan RT, Grainger DW, Advances in biomaterials and surface technologies. J Orthop Trauma 2012 Dec;26(12):703-7

Rao AN, Vandencasteele N, Gamble LJ, Grainger DW, High-resolution epifluorescence and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry chemical imaging comparisons of single DNA microarray spots. Anal Chem 2012 Dec 18;84(24):10628-36

Rao AN, Rodesch CK, Grainger DW, Real-time fluorescent image analysis of DNA spot hybridization kinetics to assess microarray spot heterogeneity. Anal Chem 2012 Nov 6;84(21):9379-87

Wang Y, Tran KK, Shen H, Grainger DW, Selective local delivery of RANK siRNA to bone phagocytes using bone augmentation biomaterials. Biomaterials 2012 Nov;33(33):8540-7

Jones CF, Campbell RA, Brooks AE, Assemi S, Tadjiki S, Thiagarajan G, Mulcock C, Weyrich AS, Brooks BD, Ghandehari H, Grainger DW, Cationic PAMAM dendrimers aggressively initiate blood clot formation. ACS Nano 2012 Nov 27;6(11):9900-10

Holt DJ, Grainger DW, Senescence and quiescence induced compromised function in cultured macrophages. Biomaterials 2012 Oct;33(30):7497-507

Holt DJ, Grainger DW, Demineralized bone matrix as a vehicle for delivering endogenous and exogenous therapeutics in bone repair. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2012 Sep;64(12):1123-8

Wang Y, Grainger DW, RNA therapeutics targeting osteoclast-mediated excessive bone resorption. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2012 Sep;64(12):1341-57

Sanders WG, Hogrebe PC, Grainger DW, Cheung AK, Terry CM, A biodegradable perivascular wrap for controlled, local and directed drug delivery. J Control Release 2012 Jul 10;161(1):81-9

Jones CF, Campbell RA, Franks Z, Gibson CC, Thiagarajan G, Vieira-de-Abreu A, Sukavaneshvar S, Mohammad SF, Li DY, Ghandehari H, Weyrich AS, Brooks BD, Grainger DW, Cationic PAMAM dendrimers disrupt key platelet functions. Mol Pharm 2012 Jun 4;9(6):1599-611

Astashkina AI, Mann BK, Prestwich GD, Grainger DW, Comparing predictive drug nephrotoxicity biomarkers in kidney 3-D primary organoid culture and immortalized cell lines. Biomaterials 2012 Jun;33(18):4712-21

Astashkina AI, Mann BK, Prestwich GD, Grainger DW, A 3-D organoid kidney culture model engineered for high-throughput nephrotoxicity assays. Biomaterials 2012 Jun;33(18):4700-11

Astashkina A, Mann B, Grainger DW, A critical evaluation of in vitro cell culture models for high-throughput drug screening and toxicity. Pharmacol Ther 2012 Apr;134(1):82-106

Diekjiirgen D, Astashkina A, Grainger DW, Holt D, Brooks AE, Cultured primary macrophage activation by lipopolysaccharide depends on adsorbed protein composition and substrate surface chemistry. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2012;23(9):1231-54

Wang Y, Panasiuk A, Grainger DW, Small interfering RNA knocks down the molecular target of alendronate, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, in osteoclast and osteoblast cultures. Mol Pharm 2011 Aug 1;8(4):1016-24

Holt DJ, Grainger DW, Multinucleated giant cells from fibroblast cultures. Biomaterials 2011 Jun;32(16):3977-87

Davidoff SN, Sevy JO, Brooks BD, Grainger DW, Brooks AE, Evaluating antibiotic release profiles as a function of polymer coating formulation - biomed 2011. Biomed Sci Instrum 2011;47:46-51

Holt DJ, Chamberlain LM, Grainger DW, Cell-cell signaling in co-cultures of macrophages and fibroblasts. Biomaterials 2010 Dec;31(36):9382-94

Takahashi H, Wang Y, Grainger DW, Device-based local delivery of siRNA against mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a murine subcutaneous implant model to inhibit fibrous encapsulation. J Control Release 2010 Nov 1;147(3):400-7

Wang Y, Grainger DW, siRNA knock-down of RANK signaling to control osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Pharm Res 2010 Jul;27(7):1273-84

Liu F, Dubey M, Takahashi H, Castner DG, Grainger DW, Immobilized antibody orientation analysis using secondary ion mass spectrometry and fluorescence imaging of affinity-generated patterns. Anal Chem 2010 Apr 1;82(7):2947-58

Saldarriaga Fernández IC, Mei HC, Metzger S, Grainger DW, Engelsman AF, Nejadnik MR, Busscher HJ, In vitro and in vivo comparisons of staphylococcal biofilm formation on a cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol)-based polymer coating. Acta Biomater 2010 Mar;6(3):1119-24

Davidoff SN, Call BP, Hogrebe PC, Grainger DW, Brooks AE, A robust method to coat allograft bone with a drug-releasing polymer shell - biomed 2010. Biomed Sci Instrum 2010;46:184-9

Sevy JO, Slawson MH, Grainger DW, Brooks AE, Assay method for polymer-controlled antibiotic release from allograft bone to target orthopaedic infections - biomed 2010. Biomed Sci Instrum 2010;46:136-41

Grainger DW, Castner DG, Dubey M, Emoto K, Takahashi H, Affinity-based Protein Surface Pattern Formation by Ligand Self-Selection from Mixed Protein Solutions. Adv Funct Mater 2009 Oct 9;19(19):3046-3055

Grainger DW, DNA nanotechnology: Geometric sorting boards. Nat Nanotechnol 2009 Sep;4(9):543-4

Higgins DM, Basaraba RJ, Hohnbaum AC, Lee EJ, Grainger DW, Gonzalez-Juarrero M, Localized immunosuppressive environment in the foreign body response to implanted biomaterials. Am J Pathol 2009 Jul;175(1):161-70

Jones CF, Grainger DW, In vitro assessments of nanomaterial toxicity. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2009 Jun 21;61(6):438-56

Grainger DW, Nanotoxicity assessment: all small talk? Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2009 Jun 21;61(6):419-21

Chamberlain LM, Godek ML, Gonzalez-Juarrero M, Grainger DW, Phenotypic non-equivalence of murine (monocyte-) macrophage cells in biomaterial and inflammatory models. J Biomed Mater Res A 2009 Mar 15;88(4):858-71

Dubey M, Emoto K, Cheng F, Gamble LJ, Takahashi H, Grainger DW, Castner DG, Surface Analysis of Photolithographic Patterns using ToF-SIMS and PCA. Surf Interface Anal 2009 Mar 18;41(8):645-652

Takahashi H, Emoto K, Dubey M, Castner DG, Grainger DW, Imaging surface immobilization chemistry: correlation with cell patterning on non-adhesive hydrogel thin films. Adv Funct Mater 2008 Jul;18(14):2079-2088

Ayres N, Holt DJ, Jones CF, Corum LE, Grainger DW, Polymer Brushes Containing Sulfonated Sugar Repeat Units: Synthesis, Characterization and In Vitro Testing of Blood Coagulation Activation. J Polym Sci A Polym Chem 2008;46(23):7713-7724

Grainger DW, Peer review as professional responsibility: a quality control system only as good as the participants. Biomaterials 2007 Dec;28(34):5199-203

Takahashi H, Letourneur D, Grainger DW, Delivery of large biopharmaceuticals from cardiovascular stents: a review. Biomacromolecules 2007 Nov;8(11):3281-93

Cheng F, Gamble LJ, Grainger DW, Castner DG, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, and Principal Component Analysis of the Hydrolysis, Regeneration, and Reactivity of N-Hydroxysuccinimide-Containing Organic Thin Films. Anal Chem 2007 Nov 15;79(22):8781-8788

Saldarriaga Fernandez IC, van der Mei HC, Lochhead MJ, Grainger DW, Busscher H , The inhibition of the adhesion of clinically isolated bacterial strains on multi-component cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol)-based polymer coatings. Biomaterials 2007 Oct;28(28):4105-12

Lee CY, Harbers GM, Grainger DW, Gamble LJ, Castner D , Fluorescence, XPS, and TOF-SIMS Surface Chemical State Image Analysis of DNA Microarrays. J Am Chem Soc 2007 Jul 11;:

Lee CY, Nguyen PC, Grainger DW, Gamble LJ, Castner D , Structure and DNA Hybridization Properties of Mixed Nucleic Acid/Maleimide-Ethylene Glycol Monolayers. Anal Chem 2007 Jun 15;79(12):4390-4400

Kuijer R, Jansen EJ, Emans PJ, Bulstra SK, Riesle J, Pieper J, Grainger DW, Busscher H , Assessing infection risk in implanted tissue-engineered devices. Biomaterials 2007 Jun 25;:

Dandy DS, Wu P, Grainger D , Array feature size influences nucleic acid surface capture in DNA microarrays. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007 May 15;104(20):8223-8

Grainger DW, Greef CH, Gong P, Lochhead MJ, Current microarray surface chemistries. Methods Mol Biol 2007;381:37-57

Godek ML, Malkov GS, Fisher ER, Grainger D , Macrophage Serum-Based Adhesion to Plasma-Processed Surface Chemistry is Distinct from That Exhibited by Fibroblasts. Plasma Process Polym 2006 Aug 15;3(6-7):485-497

Lee CY, Gong P, Harbers GM, Grainger DW, Castner DG, Gamble L , Surface coverage and structure of mixed DNA/Alkylthiol monolayers on gold: characterization by XPS, NEXAFS, and fluorescence intensity measurements. Anal Chem 2006 May 15;78(10):3316-25

Gong P, Harbers GM, Grainger D , Multi-technique comparison of immobilized and hybridized oligonucleotide surface density on commercial amine-reactive microarray slides. Anal Chem 2006 Apr 1;78(7):2342-51

Wu P, Grainger D , Drug/device combinations for local drug therapies and infection prophylaxis. Biomaterials 2006 Apr;27(11):2450-67

Christie RJ, Findley DJ, Dunfee M, Hansen RD, Olsen SC, Grainger D , Photopolymerized hydrogel carriers for live vaccine ballistic delivery. Vaccine 2006 Feb 27;24(9):1462-9

Wu P, Hogrebe P, Grainger D , DNA and protein microarray printing on silicon nitride waveguide surfaces. Biosens Bioelectron 2006 Jan 15;21(7):1252-63

Grainger D , Controlled-release and local delivery of therapeutic antibodies. Expert Opin Biol Ther 2004 Jul;4(7):1029-44

Fortunato A, Grainger DW, Abou-El-Enein M, Enhancing patient-level clinical data access to promote evidence-based practice and incentivize therapeutic innovation. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2018 Nov - Dec;136-137:97-104