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Richard A. Normann

Phone: 801-581-7645
Office: 508F BPR

Richard A. Normann

Ph.D., Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences
University of California, Berkeley

Current Research

University of California (Berkeley). Neuroprosthetics, vision neurophysiology. Work is ongoing in applied and basic studies of the central nervous system. Key in this work is the development of three dimensional, silicon based electrode arrays to be used to stimulate or record from the neurons of the central nervous system. Passing currents through arrays implanted in visual or auditory parts of the brain, could produce a sense of sight in the blind or hearing in the deaf. If implanted in the motor parts of the brain, these arrays could be used to record neural signals for controlling external systems (like a wheel chair). The arrays are also being used to study the parallel processing of sensory information by the retina and higher visual centers.

Selected Publications

Normann RA, Fernandez E, Clinical applications of penetrating neural interfaces and Utah Electrode Array technologies. J Neural Eng 2016 Dec;13(6):061003

Davis TS, Wark HA, Hutchinson DT, Warren DJ, O'Neill K, Scheinblum T, Clark GA, Normann RA, Greger B, Restoring motor control and sensory feedback in people with upper extremity amputations using arrays of 96 microelectrodes implanted in the median and ulnar nerves. J Neural Eng 2016 Jun;13(3):036001

Frankel MA, Mathews VJ, Clark GA, Normann RA, Meek SG, Control of Dynamic Limb Motion Using Fatigue-Resistant Asynchronous Intrafascicular Multi-Electrode Stimulation. Front Neurosci 2016 Sep 13;10:414

Wark HA, Black SR, Mathews KS, Cartwright PC, Gustafson KJ, Normann RA, Restoration from acute urinary dysfunction using Utah electrode arrays implanted into the feline pudendal nerve. Neuromodulation 2015 Jun;18(4):317-23

Jorgenson LA, Newsome WT, Anderson DJ, Bargmann CI, Brown EN, Deisseroth K, Donoghue JP, Hudson KL, Ling GS, MacLeish PR, Marder E, Normann RA, Sanes JR, Schnitzer MJ, Sejnowski TJ, Tank DW, Tsien RY, Ugurbil K, Wingfield JC, The BRAIN Initiative: developing technology to catalyse neuroscience discovery. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2015 May 19;370(1668):

Mathews KS, Wark HA, Warren DJ, Christensen MB, Nolta NF, Cartwright PC, Normann RA, Acute monitoring of genitourinary function using intrafascicular electrodes: selective pudendal nerve activity corresponding to bladder filling, bladder fullness, and genital stimulation. Urology 2014 Sep;84(3):722-9

Mathews KS, Wark HA, Normann RA, Assessment of rat sciatic nerve function following acute implantation of high density Utah slanted electrode array (25 electrodes/mm(2) ) based on neural recordings and evoked muscle activity. Muscle Nerve 2014 Sep;50(3):417-24

Wark HA, Mathews KS, Normann RA, Fernandez E, Behavioral and cellular consequences of high-electrode count Utah Arrays chronically implanted in rat sciatic nerve. J Neural Eng 2014 Aug;11(4):046027

Fernández E, Greger B, House PA, Aranda I, Botella C, Albisua J, Soto-Sánchez C, Alfaro A, Normann RA, Acute human brain responses to intracortical microelectrode arrays: challenges and future prospects. Front Neuroeng 2014 Jul 21;7:24

Normann RA, Building on the BRAIN initiative. J Neural Eng 2013 Aug;10(4):040301

Wark HA, Sharma R, Mathews KS, Fernandez E, Yoo J, Christensen B, Tresco P, Rieth L, Solzbacher F, Normann RA, Tathireddy P, A new high-density (25 electrodes/mm˛) penetrating microelectrode array for recording and stimulating sub-millimeter neuroanatomical structures. J Neural Eng 2013 Aug;10(4):045003

Davis TS, Parker RA, House PA, Bagley E, Wendelken S, Normann RA, Greger B, Spatial and temporal characteristics of V1 microstimulation during chronic implantation of a microelectrode array in a behaving macaque. J Neural Eng 2012 Dec;9(6):065003

Normann RA, Dowden BR, Frankel MA, Wilder AM, Hiatt SD, Ledbetter NM, Warren DA, Clark GA, Coordinated, multi-joint, fatigue-resistant feline stance produced with intrafascicular hind limb nerve stimulation. J Neural Eng 2012 Apr;9(2):026019

Dowden BR, Frankel MA, Normann RA, Clark GA, Non-invasive method for selection of electrodes and stimulus parameters for FES applications with intrafascicular arrays. J Neural Eng 2012 Feb;9(1):016006

Torab K, Davis TS, Warren DJ, House PA, Normann RA, Greger B, Multiple factors may influence the performance of a visual prosthesis based on intracortical microstimulation: nonhuman primate behavioural experimentation. J Neural Eng 2011 Jun;8(3):035001

Frankel MA, Dowden BR, Mathews VJ, Normann RA, Clark GA, Meek SG, Multiple-input single-output closed-loop isometric force control using asynchronous intrafascicular multi-electrode stimulation. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2011 Jun;19(3):325-32

Parker RA, Davis TS, House PA, Normann RA, Greger B, The functional consequences of chronic, physiologically effective intracortical microstimulation. Prog Brain Res 2011;194:145-65

Dowden BR, Wark HA, Normann RA, Muscle-selective block using intrafascicular high-frequency alternating current. Muscle Nerve 2010 Sep;42(3):339-47

Dowden BR, Wilder AM, Hiatt SD, Normann RA, Brown NA, Clark GA, Selective and graded recruitment of cat hamstring muscles with intrafascicular stimulation. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2009 Dec;17(6):545-52

Wilder AM, Hiatt SD, Dowden BR, Brown NA, Normann RA, Clark GA, Automated stimulus-response mapping of high-electrode-count neural implants. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2009 Oct;17(5):504-11

Normann RA, Greger B, House P, Romero SF, Pelayo F, Fernandez E, Toward the development of a cortically based visual neuroprosthesis. J Neural Eng 2009 Jun;6(3):035001

Gunalan K, Warren DJ, Perry JD, Normann RA, Clark GA, An automated system for measuring tip impedance and among-electrode shunting in high-electrode count microelectrode arrays. J Neurosci Methods 2009 Apr 15;178(2):263-9

Hsu JM, Rieth L, Normann RA, Tathireddy P, Solzbacher F, Encapsulation of an integrated neural interface device with Parylene C. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2009 Jan;56(1):23-9

Bhandari R, Negi S, Rieth L, Normann RA, Solzbacher F, A Novel Method of Fabricating Convoluted Shaped Electrode Arrays for Neural and Retinal Prostheses. Sens Actuators A Phys 2008;145-146(1-2):123-130

Kim S, Tathireddy P, Normann RA, Solzbacher F, Thermal impact of an active 3-D microelectrode array implanted in the brain. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2007 Dec;15(4):493-501

Normann RA, Technology insight: future neuroprosthetic therapies for disorders of the nervous system. Nat Clin Pract Neurol 2007 Aug;3(8):444-52

Kim SJ, Badi AN, Normann RA, Selective activation of cat primary auditory cortex by way of direct intraneural auditory nerve stimulation. Laryngoscope 2007 Jun;117(6):1053-62

Badi AN, Owa AO, Shelton C, Normann RA, Electrode independence in intraneural cochlear nerve stimulation. Otol Neurotol 2007 Jan;28(1):16-24

Guillory KS, Shoham S, Normann RA, Discrete stimulus estimation from neural responses in the turtle retina. Vision Res 2006 Jun;46(12):1876-85

House PA, MacDonald JD, Tresco PA, Normann RA, Acute microelectrode array implantation into human neocortex: preliminary technique and histological considerations. Neurosurg Focus 2006 May 15;20(5):E4

Kim SJ, Manyam SC, Warren DJ, Normann RA, Electrophysiological mapping of cat primary auditory cortex with multielectrode arrays. Ann Biomed Eng 2006 Feb;34(2):300-9

Kim S, Normann RA, Harrison R, Solzbacher F, Preliminary study of the thermal impact of a microelectrode array implanted in the brain. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2006;1:2986-9

Lehmkuhle MJ, Normann RA, Maynard E , Trial-by-Trial Discrimination of Three Enantiomer Pairs by Neural Ensembles in Mammalian Olfactory Bulb. J Neurophysiol 2005 Nov 23;:

Solzbacher F, Harrison RR, Normann RA, Oppermann H, Klein M, Koch K , Integrated neural interfaces arrays for neuroprosthetics applications. Nanomedicine 2005 Sep;1(3):250-1

Warren DJ, Normann RA, Functional reorganization of primary visual cortex induced by electrical stimulation in the cat. Vision Res 2005 Mar;45(5):551-65

McDonnall D, Clark GA, Normann RA, Selective motor unit recruitment via intrafascicular multielectrode stimulation. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2004 Aug-Sep;82(8-9):599-609

Warren DJ, Koulakov A, Normann RA, Spatiotemporal encoding of a bar's direction of motion by neural ensembles in cat primary visual cortex. Ann Biomed Eng 2004 Sep;32(9):1265-75

McDonnall D, Clark GA, Normann RA, Interleaved, multisite electrical stimulation of cat sciatic nerve produces fatigue-resistant, ripple-free motor responses. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2004 Jun;12(2):208-15

Branner A, Stein RB, Fernandez E, Aoyagi Y, Normann RA, Long-term stimulation and recording with a penetrating microelectrode array in cat sciatic nerve. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2004 Jan;51(1):146-57

Hillman T, Badi AN, Normann RA, Kertesz T, Shelton C, Cochlear nerve stimulation with a 3-dimensional penetrating electrode array. Otol Neurotol 2003 Sep;24(5):764-8

Shoham S, Fellows MR, Normann RA, Robust, automatic spike sorting using mixtures of multivariate t-distributions. J Neurosci Methods 2003 Aug 15;127(2):111-22

Lehmkuhle MJ, Normann RA, Maynard EM, High-resolution analysis of the spatio-temporal activity patterns in rat olfactory bulb evoked by enantiomer odors. Chem Senses 2003 Jul;28(6):499-508

Badi AN, Kertesz TR, Gurgel RK, Shelton C, Normann RA, Development of a novel eighth-nerve intraneural auditory neuroprosthesis. Laryngoscope 2003 May;113(5):833-42

Badi AN, Hillman T, Shelton C, Normann RA, A technique for implantation of a 3-dimensional penetrating electrode array in the modiolar nerve of cats and humans. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2002 Sep;128(9):1019-25

Shoham S, Halgren E, Maynard EM, Normann RA, Motor-cortical activity in tetraplegics. Nature 2001 Oct 25;413(6858):793

Branner A, Stein RB, Normann RA, Selective stimulation of cat sciatic nerve using an array of varying-length microelectrodes. J Neurophysiol 2001 Apr;85(4):1585-94

Warren DJ, Fernandez E, Normann RA, High-resolution two-dimensional spatial mapping of cat striate cortex using a 100-microelectrode array. Neuroscience 2001;105(1):19-31

Normann RA, Warren DJ, Ammermuller J, Fernandez E, Guillory S, High-resolution spatio-temporal mapping of visual pathways using multi-electrode arrays. Vision Res 2001;41(10-11):1261-75

Maynard EM, Fernandez E, Normann RA, A technique to prevent dural adhesions to chronically implanted microelectrode arrays. J Neurosci Methods 2000 Apr 15;97(2):93-101

Branner A, Normann RA, A multielectrode array for intrafascicular recording and stimulation in sciatic nerve of cats. Brain Res Bull 2000 Mar 1;51(4):293-306

Guillory KS, Normann RA, A 100-channel system for real time detection and storage of extracellular spike waveforms. J Neurosci Methods 1999 Sep 15;91(1-2):21-9

Maynard EM, Hatsopoulos NG, Ojakangas CL, Acuna BD, Sanes JN, Normann RA, Donoghue JP, Neuronal interactions improve cortical population coding of movement direction. J Neurosci 1999 Sep 15;19(18):8083-93

Normann RA, Maynard EM, Rousche PJ, Warren DJ, A neural interface for a cortical vision prosthesis. Vision Res 1999 Jul;39(15):2577-87

Shah MR, Phillips RP, Normann RA, A study of printed spiral coils for neuroprosthetic transcranial telemetry applications. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 1998 Jul;45(7):867-76

Jones KE, Normann RA, An advanced demultiplexing system for physiological stimulation. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 1997 Dec;44(12):1210-20

Maynard EM, Nordhausen CT, Normann RA, The Utah intracortical Electrode Array: a recording structure for potential brain-computer interfaces. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1997 Mar;102(3):228-39

Nordhausen CT, Maynard EM, Normann RA, Single unit recording capabilities of a 100 microelectrode array. Brain Res 1996 Jul 8;726(1-2):129-40

Nordhausen CT, Rousche PJ, Normann RA, Optimizing recording capabilities of the Utah Intracortical Electrode Array. Brain Res 1994 Feb 21;637(1-2):27-36

Johansson T, Abbasi M, Huber RJ, Normann RA, A three-dimensional architecture for a parallel processing photosensing array. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 1992 Dec;39(12):1292-7

Cha K, Horch KW, Normann RA, Mobility performance with a pixelized vision system. Vision Res 1992 Jul;32(7):1367-72

Cha K, Horch KW, Normann RA, Boman DK, Reading speed with a pixelized vision system. J Opt Soc Am A 1992 May;9(5):673-7

Rousche PJ, Normann RA, A method for pneumatically inserting an array of penetrating electrodes into cortical tissue. Ann Biomed Eng 1992;20(4):413-22

Jones KE, Campbell PK, Normann RA, A glass/silicon composite intracortical electrode array. Ann Biomed Eng 1992;20(4):423-37

Cha K, Horch K, Normann RA, Simulation of a phosphene-based visual field: visual acuity in a pixelized vision system. Ann Biomed Eng 1992;20(4):439-49

Muller JF, Ammermüller J, Normann RA, Kolb H, Synaptic inputs to physiologically defined turtle retinal ganglion cells. Vis Neurosci 1991 Nov;7(5):409-29

Campbell PK, Jones KE, Huber RJ, Horch KW, Normann RA, A silicon-based, three-dimensional neural interface: manufacturing processes for an intracortical electrode array. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 1991 Aug;38(8):758-68

Normann RA, Perlman I, Background and bleaching adaptation in luminosity type horizontal cells in the isolated turtle retina. J Physiol 1990 Feb;421:321-41

Campbell PK, Jones KE, Normann RA, A 100 electrode intracortical array: structural variability. Biomed Sci Instrum 1990;26:161-5

Campbell PK, Normann RA, Horch KW, Stensaas SS, A chronic intracortical electrode array: preliminary results. J Biomed Mater Res 1989 Aug;23(A2 Suppl):245-59

Normann RA, Johnson RW, Messinger JE, Sohrab B, A continuous cardiac output computer based on thermodilution principles. Ann Biomed Eng 1989;17(1):61-73

Lasater EM, Normann RA, Kolb H, Signal integration at the pedicle of turtle cone photoreceptors: an anatomical and electrophysiological study. Vis Neurosci 1989;2(6):553-64

Normann RA, Perlman I, Anderton PJ, Modulation of cone-to-horizontal-cell signal transmission in the turtle retina by magnesium ions. Brain Res 1988 Mar 8;443(1-2):95-100

Kolb H, Perlman I, Normann RA, Neural organization of the retina of the turtle Mauremys caspica: a light microscope and Golgi study. Vis Neurosci 1988;1(1):47-72

Johnson RW, Normann RA, Signal processing strategies for enhancement of signal-to-noise ratio of thermodilution measurements. Ann Biomed Eng 1988;16(3):265-78

Johnson RW, Normann RA, Mathematical and mechanical modeling of heat transport through the heart. Ann Biomed Eng 1987;15(6):603-17