Student Presentation -- Patrick Kolbay
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Ph.D. Research Proposal, Monday April 16, 2018 -- Sensor Fusion and Reversible Sorption Materials for Feedback Control Capture and Delivery of Anesthetic Gases

SMBB 3250 , 10:30 am

Speaker: Patrick Kolbay. Advisor: Dr. Kai Kuck


Abstract:

General anesthesia is well known to offer physicians access to a broad variety of invasive procedures otherwise deemed too risky. Anesthesia machines provides the means for anesthetizing patients safely in the hospital operating room. However, these devices are increasingly unable to meet the demands and needs outside of the hospital. Developing countries struggle to purchase and maintain these costly devices, leading to a 40-fold increase in anesthesia-related deaths compared to developed countries. Small-office practices in the United States experience significantly poorer anesthesia outcomes and increased legal claims versus their larger hospital counterparts, resulting in 60% more anesthesia-related deaths. Environmental impacts and global health concerns from the emitted anesthetic gases have brought into serious question the prevailing notion that unchecked emissions were sustainable. These factors can all be attributed to anesthesia machine design and technology having the primary intended use in the traditional operating room.

The long-term goal of the proposed work is to develop technologies in anesthesia that expand its safe use, decrease underlying costs, and reduce the total emissions. The immediate objective of this work is to create a feedback-controlled anesthetic gas vaporizer-scavenger system and evaluate its performance. The central hypothesis is that the combined use of mesoporous materials and feedback control provide the opportunity for repeatable capture and release of expired anesthetic gases during anesthesia delivery. Our rationale is that such a device will help reduce the amount of anesthetic needed while simultaneously offering improved control over the delivery of anesthetic gases. Our specific aims will test the following hypothesis: The combination of orifice-plate and hot-wire flow sensors can determine both the velocity and composition of passing anesthetic gases with improved performance over the current methods of anesthetic gas sensing (Aim 1); Mesoporous materials can be used for the repeatable capture and release of anesthetic gases with performance characteristics suitable for use in anesthesia machines (Aim 2); A combined anesthetic gas vaporizer-scavenging system can be designed to reduce the anesthetic gas needed and are sufficiently fast and accurate for clinical use (Aim 3). Upon conclusion, we will have demonstrated the feasibility of dual flowmeter-based anesthetic gas concentration sensor and an anesthetic gas vaporizer-scavenging system. This contribution is significant because it will decrease costs in anesthesia, improve access, and reduce the overall environmental impact. The successful demonstration of both the sensor and vaporizer-scavenger system would provide a path for other research in improved patient-included feedback control and other areas of controlled capture of anesthetic gases.